How often do you travel by plane?
How much electricity do you use? These days everyone is worried about the size of their carbon footprint. In order to reduce global warming we need to make our carbon footprints smaller. But how much CO2 are we responsible for?
A new book by Mike Berners Lee (a leading expert in carbon footprint) might be able to help. How Bad are Bananas? The Carbon Footprint of Everything looks at the different things we do and buy, and calculates the amount of CO2 all of the following created: the ingredients, the electricity used in the brewery, the equipment, the travel and commuting of the beer, and the packaging. It’s amazing how many different things need to be included in each calculation. And it’s frightening how much carbon dioxide everything produces.
But all of this can help us decide which beer to drink. From Berners-Lee’s calculations, it’s clear that a pint (568ml) of locally-brewed beer has a smaller carbon footprint than a bottle of imported beer. This is because the imported beer has been transported from far away, and it uses more packaging. The local beer only produces 300g of CO2, but the imported beer produces 900g! So, one pint of local beer is better for the environment than three cans of cheap foreign lager from the supermarket.
Berners-Lee has even calculated the carbon footprint of cycling to work. Nothing is more environmentally-friendly than riding a bike, surely? Well, it depends on what you’ve had to eat before. To ride a bike we need energy and for energy we need food. So if we eat a banana and then ride a kilometer and a half, our footprint is 65g of CO2. However, if we eat bacon before the bike ride, it’s 200g. In fact, bananas are good in general because they don’t need packaging, they can be transported by boat and they grow in natural sunlight.
So, does this mean that cycling is bad for the environment? Absolutely not, for a start, if you cycle, you don’t use your car, and the fewer cars on the road, the fewer traffic jams. And cars in traffic jams produce three times more CO2 than cars traveling at speed. Cycling also makes you healthy and less likely to go to a hospital. And hospitals have very big carbon footprints!
So maybe it’s time for us all to start making some changes. Pass me a banana and a pint of local beer, please.
1. According to Berners-Lee, which of the following produces the most carbon dioxide?
A. A pint of local beer we drink.
B. A pint of imported beer we drink.
C. A banana we eat before a bike ride.
D. The bacon we eat before a bike ride.
2. Why are bananas good in general?
A. They grow naturally.
B. They produces less CO2.
C. They don’t need packaging.
D. They provide energy for cycling.
3. The underlined word “brewery” in Paragraph 3 most probably means “___________”.
A. a factory where beer is made
B. a machine which makes beer
C. a container where beer is stored
D. one of the things from which beer is made
4. To make our carbon footprints smaller, we should often ___________.
A. cycle to work
B. drink more local beer
C. calculate the amount of CO2
D. buy cheap things from the supermarkets
5. What’s the most suitable title for the passage?
A. Bikes, Beer and Bananas
B. Starting to Make Changes
C. How Big Is Your Carbon Footprint?
D. The Carbon Footprint of Everything
It is easy for us to tell our friends from our enemies. But can other animals do the same? Elephants can! They can use their sense of vision and smell to tell the difference between people who pose a threat and those who do not.
In Kenya, researchers found that elephants react differently to clothing worn by men of the Maasai and Kamba ethnic groups. Young Maasai men spear animals and thus pose a threat to elephants; Kamba men are mainly farmers and are not a danger to elephants.
In an experiment conducted by animal scientists, elephants were first presented with clean clothing or clothing that had been worn for five days by either a Maasai or a Kamba man. When the elephants detected the smell of clothing worn by a Maasai man, they moved away from the smell faster and took longer to relax than when they detected the smells of either clothing worn by Kamba men or clothing that had not been worn at all.
Garment color also plays a role, though in a different way. In the same study, when the elephants saw red clothing not worn before, they reacted angrily, as red is typically worn by Maasai men. Rather than running away as they did with the smell, the elephants acted aggressively toward the red clothing.
The researchers believe that the elephants’ emotional reactions are due to their different interpretations of the smells and the sights. Smelling a potential danger means that a threat is nearby and the best thing to do is run away and hide. Seeing a potential threat without its smell means that risk is low. Therefore, instead of showing fear and running away, the elephants express their anger and become aggressive.
6. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true about Kamba and Maasai people?
A. Maasai people are a threat to elephants.
B. Kamba people raise elephants for farming.
C. Both Kamba and Maasai people are elephant hunters.
D. Both Kamba and Maasai people traditionally wear red clothing.
7. How did the elephants react to smell in the study?
A. They attacked a man with the smell of new clothing.
B. They needed time to relax when smelling something unfamiliar.
C. They became anxious when they smelled Kamba-scented clothing.
D. They were frightened and ran away when they smelled their enemies.
8. What is the main idea of this passage?
A. Elephants use sight and smell to detect danger.
B. Elephants attack people who wear red clothing.
C. Scientists are now able to control elephants’ emotions.
D. Some Kenyan tribes understand elephants’ emotions very well.
9. What can be inferred about the elephant’s behavior from this passage?
A. Elephants learn from their experiences.
B. Elephants have sharper sense of smell than sight.
C. Elephants are more intelligent than other animals.
D. Elephants tend to attack rather than escape when in danger.
Today, there’s hardly an aspect of our life that isn’t being upended by the tons of information available on the hundreds of millions of sites crowding the Internet, not to mention its ability to keep us in constant touch with each other via electronic mail. “If the automobile and aerospace technology had exploded at the same pace as computer and information technology,” says Microsoft, “a new car would cost about $ 2 and go 600 miles on a small quantity of gas. And you could buy a Boeing 747 for the cost of a pizza.”
Probably the biggest payoff, however, is the billions of dollars the Internet is saving companies in producing goods and serving for the needs of their customers. Nothing like it has been seen since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, when power-driven machines began producing more in a day than men could turn out in nearly a year. “We view the growth of the Internet and e-commerce as a global trend,” says Merrill Lynch, “along the lines of printing press, the telephone, the computer, and electricity.”
You would be hard pressed to name something that isn’t available on the Internet. Consider: books, health care, movie tickets, construction materials, baby clothes, stocks, cattle feed, music, electronics, antiques, tools, real estate, toys, autographs of famous people, wine and airline tickets. And even after you’ve moved on to your final resting place, there’s no reason those you love can’t keep in touch. A company called FinalThoughts.com offers a place for you to store “afterlife e-mails” you can send to Heaven with the help of a “guardian angel”.
Kids today are so computer literate that it in fact ensures the United States will remain the unchallenged leader in cyberspace for the foreseeable(能预测的) future. Nearly all children in families with incomes of more than $75,000 a year have home computers, according to a study by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Youngsters from ages 2 to 17 at all income levels have computers, with 52% of those connected to the Internet. Most kids use computers to play games (some for 30 hours or more a week), and many teenage girls think nothing of rushing home from school to have e-mail chats with friends they have just left.
What’s clear is that, whether we like it or not, the Internet is an ever growing part of our lives and there is no turning back. “The Internet is just 20% invented,” says cyber pioneer Jake Winebaum. “The last 80% is happening now.”
10. What can we learn from the Microsoft’s remark?
A. Today’s cars and airplanes are extremely overpriced.
B. Information technology is developing at an amazing speed.
C. Information technology has reached the point where improvement is difficult.
D. There’s more competition in information technology industry than in car industry.
11. According to the author, the biggest benefit of the Internet is that___.
A. it saves companies huge amounts of money
B. it speeds up profit making
C. it brings people incredible convenience
D. it provides easy access to information
12. The author gives the example of FinalThoughts.com to make the point that____.
A. there are some genius ideas on the Internet
B. almost anything is available on the Internet
C. people can find good bargains on the Internet
D. some websites provide novel services to increase hits
13. What can we learn from the fourth paragraph?
A. There is a link between income and computer ownership.
B. Many American children don’t put computers to good use.
C. Studies show that boys are more computer literate than girls.
D. The U.S. will stay ahead in the information technology in years.
14. Which sentence has the phrase that possesses the same meaning as the one underlined in the fifth paragraph?
A. Some can tell you that he has changed their lives, while others think nothing of him.
B. Think nothing of it. It was my pleasure.
C. He thinks nothing of staying up all night in the Café bar.
D. He thinks nothing of the pain in his back for the moment.
15. What is the message the author intends to convey?
A. The Internet is going to get firm hold of our lives some day.
B. The Internet is going to influence our lives even more greatly.
C. We should have a positive attitude towards the changes the Internet brings.
D. Children should be well prepared for the challenges in the information age.
Hans was an honest fellow with a funny round good-humored face. Living alone, every day he worked in his garden. In all the countryside there was no garden so lovely as his. All sorts of flowers grew there, blooming in their proper order as the months went by, one flower taking another flower’s place, so that there were always beautiful things to see, and pleasant odors to smell.
Hans had many friends, the most devoted being the Miller. So devoted was the rich Miller to Hans that he’d never go by his garden without plucking a large bunch of flowers or a handful of sweet herbs, or filling his pockets with fruits. The Miller used to talk about noble ideas, and Hans nodded and smiled, feeling proud of having such a friend.
The neighbors thought it strange that the rich Miller never gave Hans anything in return, though he had hundreds of sacks of flour, many cows and sheep, but Hans never troubled his head about these, and nothing gave him greater pleasure than to listen to all the wonderful things about the unselfishness of true friendship.
In spring, summer, and autumn Hans was very happy, but when winter came, and he had no fruit or flowers to sell, he suffered from cold and hunger. Though extremely lonely, the Miller never came to see him then.
“There’s no good in going to see Hans while the snow lasts.” The Miller said to his wife, “When people are in trouble they shouldn’t be bothered. So I’ll wait till the spring comes when he’s happy to give me flowers.”
“You’re certainly very thoughtful,” answered his wife, “It’s quite a treat to hear you talk about friendship.”
“Couldn’t we ask Hans up here?” said their son. “I’ll give him half my meal, and show him my white rabbits.”
“How silly you are!” cried the Miller. “I really don’t know what’s the use of sending you to school. If Hans came up here, and saw our warm fire, our good supper, and our red wine, he might get envious, and envy is a most terrible thing, and would spoil anybody’s nature. I am his best friend, and I’ll always watch over him, and see that he’s not led into any temptation. Besides, if Hans came here, he might ask me for some flour. Flour is one thing, and friendship is another, and they shouldn’t be confused. The words are spelt differently, and mean quite different things. Everybody can see that.” He looked seriously at his son, who felt so ashamed that he hung his head down, and grew quite scared, and began to cry into his tea.
Spring coming, the Miller went down to see Hans. Again he talked about friendship. “Hans, friendship never forgets. I’m afraid you don’t understand the poetry of life. See, how lovely your roses are!”
Hans said he wanted to sell them in the market to buy back his things which were sold during the hard time of the winter.
“I’ll give you many good things. I think being generous is the base of friendship.” said the Miller. “And now, as I’ll give you many good things, I’m sure you’d like to give me some flowers in return. Here’s the basket, and fill it quite full.”
Poor Hans was afraid to say anything. He ran and plucked all his pretty roses, and filled the Miller’s basket, imagining the many good things promised by the Miller.
The next day he heard the Miller calling: “Hans, would you mind carrying this sack of flour for me to market?”
“I’m sorry, but I am really very busy today.”
“Well,” said the Miller, “considering that I’m going to give you my things, it’s rather unfriendly of you to refuse. Upon my word, you mustn’t mind my speaking quite plainly to you.”
Poor Hans was driven by his friendship theory to work hard for his best friend, leaving his garden dry and wasted.
One evening Hans was sitting by fire when the Miller came.
“Hans,” cried the Miller, “My little boy has fallen off a ladder and hurt himself, and I’m going for the Doctor. But he lives so far away, and it’s such a bad windy night. It has just occurred to me that you can go instead of me. You know I’m going to give you my good things, so you should do something for me in return.”
“Certainly,” cried Hans. He struggled into the stormy night, and got the doctor to ride a horse to the Miller’s house in time to save the boy. However, Hans got lost in the darkness, and wandered off into a deep pool, drowned.
At Hans’ funeral, the Miller said, “I was his best friend. I should walk at the head of the procession.” Every now and then he wiped his eyes with a handkerchief.
16. From the passage, we can learn that Hans ___________.
A. was extremely wise and noble
B. was highly valued by the Miller
C. admired the Miller very much
D. had a strong desire for fortune
17. “Flour is one thing, and friendship is another” can be understood as ___________.
A. “Different words may mean quite different things.”
B. “Interest is permanent while friendship is flexible.”
C. “I’m afraid you don’t understand the poetry of life.”
D. “I think being generous is the base of friendship.”
18. From the Miller’s talk at home, we can see he was ___________.
A. serious but kind
B. helpful and generous
C. caring but strict
D. selfish and cold-hearted
19. What’s the main cause of Hans’ tragedy?
A. True friendship between them.
B. A lack of formal education.
C. A sudden change of weather.
D. Blind devotion to a friend.
20. The author described the Miller’s behavior in order to ___________.
A. entertain the readers with an incredible joking tale
B. show the friendship between Hans and the Miller
C. warn the readers about the danger of a false friend
D. persuade people to be as intelligent as the Miller
答案：BBAAC .ADAA BABDCB . CBDDC