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2018高考英语阅读理解压轴题【四】

发布时间:2018-05-15 17:49:20发布人:智学教育官网

高考英语试卷当中占分值最大的莫属于阅读理解题型了,此类题目做起来比较简单,只要有相应的做题方法,想不拿高分都难。智学教育小编为大家分享了2018高考英语阅读理解压轴题【四】,希望对您有所帮助!

阅读下列材料,从每题所给的四个选项 (A、B、C和D)中,选出最佳选项。

A

A three-year independent investigation into the September 11, 2001 attack on the Pentagon has yielded new eyewitness evidence which, according to the Southern California-based researchers who conducted the investigation conclusively (and unfortunately), establishes as a historical fact that the violence which took place in Arlington that day was not the result of a surprise attack by suicide hijackers, but rather a military black operation involving a carefully planned and skillfully executed deception."

A CNN Reporter at the scene states that there is no evidence that a 757 hit the Pentagon.

What hit the Pentagon? A Boeing 757 loaded with passengers and fuel right? Who was on Flight 757? According to the Flight Information there were No Arabs on it. That makes me wonder if Flight 757 actually existed at all.

From the pictures and the videos, people can find that there are several doubtful points that need to be taken into consideration, for example the marker line on the grass in the satellite and ground pictures, the different colors of the smoke, the hole which the plane impacted, and the standing pylons (架线塔).

Also, from the comparison of the different pictures, people can find some other strange points. For example, the gear (齿轮) is not the matching one. The wreckage of the plane is not the one from the American Airlines. The glass on the pavement of the pole is another doubtful point. The last thing that need considering is about the collapse. One of the gif video shows the plane impacting the Pentagon. The only problem with this video footage is that it has been altered (改变) and can not be fully trusted.

These crash photos and videos shown here clearly have been doctored (篡改) and don't even match the physics of what happened. So where is the real video? It leaves me many questions. Is this a missile? It is a real enigma.

1. Where can you possibly read this article?

A. In a newspaper. B. In a book. C. In a magazine. D. On a website.

2. What the word “yielded” mean in the first sentence?

A. given in B. surrendered C. produced D. given away

3. Which of the following doubtful points is not mentioned in the passage?

A. the colors of the smoke B. the marker line on the grass

C. the standing pylons D. the model of the plane

4. What is the author’s attitude towards the 911 investigation?

A. Positive. B. Skeptical. C. Neutral. D. NG.

B

There is increasing evidence that the impacts of meteorites (陨星) have had important effects on Earth, particularly in the field of biological evolution. Such impacts continue to pose a natural hazard to life on Earth. If an impact is large enough, it can disturb the environment of the entire Earth and cause an ecological catastrophe. The best-documented such impact took place 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period (白垩纪期) of geological history. This break in Earth's history is marked by a mass extinction, when as many as half the species on the planet became extinct. While there are a dozen or more mass extinctions in the geological record, the Cretaceous mass extinction has always intrigued paleontologists (古生物学者) because it marks the end of the age of the dinosaurs. For tens of millions of years, those great creatures had flourished. Then, suddenly, they disappeared.

The body that impacted Earth at the end of the Cretaceous period was a meteorite with a mass of more than a trillion tons and a diameter of at least 10 kilometers. Scientists first identified this impact in 1980 from the worldwide layer of sediment (沉积物) deposited from the dust cloud that enveloped the planet after the impact. This sediment layer is enriched in the rare metal iridium (铱) and other elements that are relatively abundant in a meteorite but very rare in the crust (地壳) of Earth. Even diluted (稀释) by the terrestrial (地球的) material excavated (挖掘) from the crater, this component of meteorites is easily identified. By 1990 geologists had located the impact site itself in the Yucat region of Mexico. The crater, now deeply buried in sediment, was originally about 200 kilometers in diameter.

This impact released an enormous amount of energy, excavating a crater about twice as large as the lunar crater Tycho. The explosion lifted about 100 trillion tons of dust into the atmosphere. Such a quantity of material would have blocked the sunlight completely from reaching the surface, plunging Earth into a period of cold and darkness that lasted at least several months. The explosion is also calculated to have produced vast quantities of nitric acid (硝酸) and melted rock that sprayed out over much of Earth, starting widespread fires that must have consumed most terrestrial forests and grassland. Presumably, those environmental disasters could have been responsible for the mass extinction, including the death of the dinosaurs.

Several other mass extinctions in the geological record have been tentatively identified with large impacts, but none is so dramatic as the Cretaceous event. But even without such specific documentation, it is clear that impacts of this size do occur and that their results can be catastrophic. What is a catastrophe for one group of living things, however, may create opportunities for another group. Following each mass extinction, there is a sudden evolutionary burst as new species develop to fill the ecological niches opened by the event.

Impacts by meteorites represent one way that could cause global catastrophes and seriously influence the evolution of life all over the planet. According to some estimates, the majority of all extinctions of species may be due to such impacts. Such a perspective fundamentally changes our view of biological evolution. The standard criterion for the survival of a species is its success in competing with other species and adapting to slowly changing environments. Yet an equally important criterion is the ability of a species to survive random global ecological catastrophes due to impacts.

5. In paragraph 2, why does the author include the information that dinosaurs had flourished for tens of millions of years and then suddenly disappeared?

A. To support the claim that the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous is the best-documented of the dozen or so mass extinctions in the geological record.

B. To explain why as many as half of the species on Earth at the time are believed to have become extinct at the end of the Cretaceous.

C. To explain why paleontologists have always been intrigued by the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous.

D. To provide evidence that an impact can be large enough to disturb the environment of the entire planet and cause an ecological disaster.

6. According to paragraph 3, how did scientists determine that a large meteorite had impacted Earth?

A. They discovered a large crater in the Yucat region of Mexico.

B. They found a unique layer of sediment worldwide.

C. They were alerted by archaeologists who had been excavating in the Yucat region.

D. They located a meteorite with a mass of over a trillion tons.

7. According to paragraph 4, all of the following statements are true of the impact at the end of the Cretaceous period EXCEPT:

A. A large amount of dust blocked sunlight from Earth.

B. Earth became cold and dark for several months.

C. New elements were formed in Earth's crust.

D. Large quantities of nitric acid were produced.

8. The phrase tentatively identified in the passage is closest in the meaning to ____________.

A. identified without certainty B. identified after careful study

C. occasionally identified D. easily identified

9. Paragraph 6 supports which of the following statements about the factors that are essential for the survival of a species?

A. The most important factor for the survival of a species is its ability to compete and adapt to gradual changes in its environment.

B. The ability of a species to compete and adapt to a gradually changing environment is not the only ability that is essential for survival.

C. Since most extinctions of species are due to major meteorite impacts, the ability to survive such impacts is the most important factor for the survival of a species.

D. The factors that are most important for the survival of a species vary significantly from one species to another.

C

Passage 1 is from the introduction to a Zen Buddhist (禅宗的佛教僧侣) manual on the art of “mindfulness”, the practice of paying close attention to the present moment. Passage 2 is from an essay by a United States author.

Passage 1

Every morning, when we wake up, we have 24 brand-new hours to live. What a precious gift! We have the capacity to live in a way that these 24 hours will bring peace, joy, and happiness to ourselves and to others.

Peace is right here and now, in ourselves and in everything we do and see. The question is whether or not we are in touch with it. We don’t have to travel far away to enjoy the blue sky. We don’t have to leave our city or even our neighborhood to enjoy the eyes of a beautiful child. Even the air we breathe can be a source of joy.

We can smile, breathe, walk, and eat our meals in a way that allows us to be in touch with the abundance of happiness that is available. We are very good at preparing how to live, but not very good at living. We know how to sacrifice ten years for a diploma, and we are willing to work very hard to get a job, a car, a house, and so on. But we have difficulty remembering that we are alive in the present moment, the only moment there is for us to be alive. Every breath we take, every step we make, can be filled with joy, peace, and serenity. We need only to be awake, alive in the present moment.

Passage 2

The argument of both the hedonist (享乐主义者) and the guru (印度教的宗师) is that we were but to open ourselves to the richness of the moment, to concentrate on the feast before us, we would be filled with bliss. I have lived in the present from time to time and can tell you that it is much overrated. Occasionally, as a holiday from stroking one’s memories or brooding (担忧) about future worries, I grant you, it can be a nice change of pace. But to “be here now,” hour after hour, would never work. I don’t even approve of stories written in the present tense. Ads for poets who never use a past participate, they deserve the eternity they are striving for.

Besides, the present has a way of intruding whether you like it or not. Why should I go out of my way to meet it? Let it splash on me from time to time, like a car going through a puddle, and I, on the sidewalk of my solitude (孤独), will salute it grimly like any other modern inconvenience.

If I attend a concert, obviously not to listen to the music but to find a brief breathing space in which to meditate on the past and future. I realize that there may be moments when the music invades my ears and I am forced to pay attention to it, note for note. I believe I take such intrusions gracefully. The present is not always an unwelcome guest, so long as it doesn’t stay too long and cut into my remembering or brooding time.

10.The author of Passage 1 would most likely view the author of Passage 2 as _______.

A. attaching too much importance to the views of others

B. advocating an action without considering the consequences

C. squandering (浪费) a precious opportunity on a daily basis

D. failing to respect the feelings of other people

11. The author of Passage 1 would most likely respond to the “argument” (line 1 Passage 2) with_______.

A. complete agreement B. partial acceptance

C. absolute neutrality D. surprised disbelief

12. In Passage 1 line 11, the list (“a job…house”) presents things that most people ________.

A. assume they will eventually obtain B. eventually realize are overrated

C. are unwilling to make sacrifices for D. see as worth much effort to acquire

13. In Passage 2 lines 8—10, the “present” is characterized as _________.

A. a dangerous threat B. an unsolvable puzzle

C. an unavoidable imposition (强加) D. a burdensome obligation

14. Which of the following phrases from Passage 2 would the author of Passage 1 most likely choose as a title for Passage 1?

A. “the hedonist and the guru” (line 1) B. “the feast before us” (line 2)

C. “a brief breathing space” (line 11) D. “an unwelcome guest” (line 14)

D

Tom appeared on the sidewalk with a bucket of whitewash and a long-handled brush. He stopped by the fence in front of the house where he lived with his aunt Polly. He looked at it, and all joy left him. The fence was long and high. He put the brush into the whitewash and moved it along the top of the fence. He repeated the operation. He felt he could not continue and sat down.

He knew that his friends would arrive soon with all kinds of interesting plans for the day. They would walk past him and laugh. They would make jokes about his having to work on a beautiful summer Saturday. The thought burned him like fire.

He put his hand into his pockets and took out all that he owned. Perhaps he could find some way to pay someone to do the whitewashing for him. But there was nothing of value in his pockets —nothing that could buy even half an hour of freedom. So he put the bits of toys back into his pockets and gave up the idea

At this dark and hopeless moment, a wonderful idea came to him. It filled his mind with a great, bright light. Calmly he picked up the brush and started again to whitewash.

While Tom was working, Ben Rogers appeared. Ben was eating an apple as he walked along the street. As he walked along, he was making noises like the sound of a riverboat. First he shouted loudly, like a boat captain. Then he said “Ding-Dong-Dong”, “Ding-Dong-Dong” again and again, like the bell of a riverboat. And he made other strange noises. When he came close to Tom, he stopped.

Tom went on whitewashing. He did not look at Ben. Ben stared a moment and then said: “Hello! I’m going swimming, but you can’t go, can you?”

No answer. Tom moved his brush carefully along the fence and looked at the result with the eye of an artist. Ben came nearer. Tom’s mouth watered for the apple, but he kept on working.

Ben said, “Hello, old fellow, you’ve got to work, hey?”

Tom turned suddenly and said, “Why, it’s you, Ben! I wasn’t noticing.”

“Say —I’m going swimming. Don’t you wish you could? But of course you’d rather work — wouldn’t you? Of course you would.”

Tom looked at the boy a bit, and said “What do you call work?”

“Why, isn’t that work?”

Tom went back to his whitewashing, and answered carelessly.

“Well, maybe it is, and maybe it isn’t. All I know is, it suits Tom Sawyer.”

“Oh come, now, you don’t mean to say that you like it?”

The brush continued to move.

“Like it? Well, I don’t see why I shouldn’t like it. Does a boy get a chance to whitewash a fence every day?”

Ben stopped eating his apple. Tom moved his brush back and forth, stepped back to look at the result, added a touch here and there, and stepped back again. Ben watched every move and got more and more interested. Soon he said,

“Say, Tom, let me whitewash a little.”

Tom thought for a moment, was about to agree; but he changed his mind.

“No —no —it won’t do, Ben. You see, Aunt Polly wants this fence to be perfect. It has got to be done very carefully. I don’t think there is one boy in a thousand, maybe two thousand, that can do it well enough.”

“No —is that so? Oh come, now —let me just try. Only just a little.” “Ben, I’d like to, but if it isn’t done right, I’m afraid Aunt Polly … ”

“Oh, I’ll be careful. Now let me try. Say —I’ll give you the core of my apple.”

“Well, here —No, Ben, now don’t. I’m afraid …”

“I’ll give you all of it.”

Tom gave up the brush with unwillingness on his face, but joy in his heart. And while Ben worked at the fence in the hot sun, Tom sat under a tree, eating the apple, and planning how to get more help. There were enough boys. Each one came to laugh, but remained to whitewash. By the time Ben was tired, Tom sold the next chance to Billy for a kite; and when Billy was tired, Johnny bought in for a dead rat —and so on, hour after hour. And when the middle of the afternoon came, Tom had won many treasures.

And he had not worked. He had had a nice idle time all the time, with plenty of company -and the fence had been whitewashed three times. If he hadn’t run out of whitewash, Tom would have owned everything belonging to his friends.

He had discovered a great law of human action, namely, that in order to make a man or a boy want a thing, it is only necessary to make the thing difficult to get.

15. How many characters are mentioned in this story?

A. 4 B. 5 C. 6 D. 7

16. Why did Tom take all his bits of toys out of his pockets?

A. Because he is tired and wanted to play with his toys.

B. Because he wanted to throw his toys away.

C. Because he wanted to give his toys to his friends.

D. Because he wanted to know if he could buy help with his toys.

17. Tom was about to agree to let Ben whitewash when he changed his mind because ______.

A. Tom wanted to do the whitewashing by himself

B. Tom planned to make Ben give up his apple first

C. Tom was unwilling to let Ben do the whitewashing

D. Tom was afraid Ben would do the whitewashing better.

18. We can learn from the passage that ________.

A. Tom was interested in whitewashing the fence.

B. Tom had a lot of friends who are ready to help others.

C. Tom was unwilling to whitewash the fence, but he managed to let other boys do it for him

D. Tom was good at whitewashing the fence, so he looked at the result of his work with the eye of an artist.

19. What made Ben Rogers eagerly gave up his apple and offer to brush the fence for Tom?

A. His warm heart and kindness to friends. B. His curiosity about Tom’s brushing job.

C. Tom’s threat. D. Aunt Polly’s idea.

20. Which of the following is the most suitable title for this passage?

A. The Happy Whitewasher B. Tom And His Fellows

C. Whitewashing A Fence D. How To Make The Things Difficult To Get

答案:1-4 DCDB 5-9 CBCAB 10-14 CADCB 15-20 BDBCBA

要想在高考中英语成绩突飞猛进考出理想成绩,必须要进行记忆语法等知识点,学会使用高效的方法去阅读理解。如您想要来了解更多详情或者做题方法请拨打智学教育总部客服电话:0371-89953013

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智学教育为学生规划一整年的学习

按月份为初一学生规划当月的学习

1

期末考试

经过大半个学期的学习,同学们的学习问题将会在此阶段进行爆发:学科知识漏洞越来越多、 偏科弱科越来越明显、学习无思路,苦学无效……等等。

  • 学习指导
    推荐辅导方式
    智学课程
  • 1、制定期末考试目标和学习计划,按计划执行;
    2、注重基础知识的查漏补缺,稳扎稳打学习;
    3、及时进行课外辅导,对准学生问题精准辅导,避免问题堆积。
    小班课
    (推荐指数:★☆☆☆☆)
    一对一
    (★★★★★)
    培优拔高课
    查漏补缺课
    同步提升课

2

寒假

经过大半个学期的学习,同学们的学习问题将会在此阶段进行爆发:学科知识漏洞越来越多、 偏科弱科越来越明显、学习无思路,苦学无效……等等。

  • 学习指导
    推荐辅导方式
    智学课程
  • 1、制定期末考试目标和学习计划,按计划执行;
    2、注重基础知识的查漏补缺,稳扎稳打学习;
    3、及时进行课外辅导,对准学生问题精准辅导,避免问题堆积。
    小班课
    (推荐指数:★★★★★)
    培优拔高课
    查漏补缺课
    同步提升课

3

新学期开学

新学期开始不论上学期表现如何,现在要面对的是一个全新的开始。要学会均衡分配时间,保证各学科齐头并进,不要过多把时间和精力倾注在单一学科上,避免出现偏科弱科。

  • 学习指导
    推荐辅导方式
    智学课程
  • 1、调整学习状态,保证学习效率;
    2、及时整理错题本,有针对性的学习、复习;
    3、提高综合运用知识的能力,提高应试技巧。
    小班课
    (推荐指数:★★★★☆)
    一对一
    (★☆☆☆☆)
    新学期衔接课
    培优拔高课
    查漏补缺课
    考前冲刺课
    同步提升课

4

月考

不要过多把时间和精力倾注在单一学科上,避免出现偏科弱科。要提前准备月考,并针对月考结果进行知识漏洞的分析。

  • 学习指导
    推荐辅导方式
    智学课程
  • 1、调整学习状态,保证学习效率;
    2、及时整理错题本,有针对性的学习、复习;
    3、提高综合运用知识的能力,提高应试技巧。
    小班课
    (推荐指数:★★★★☆)
    一对一
    (★☆☆☆☆)
    新学期衔接课
    培优拔高课
    查漏补缺课
    考前冲刺课
    同步提升课

5

期中考试

本次期中考试是在进入初中的第三次大考,是检验和反思自己目前学习方法和学习习惯的绝佳机会,可以在成绩公布后请各科老师帮助自己进行分析,做到更全面地了解自己的学习状况。

  • 学习指导
    推荐辅导方式
    智学课程
  • 1、制定期中考试冲刺计划,针对性的提升;
    2、结合自身情况调整各科目学习的用时,避免出现偏科、弱科现象;
    3、考后及时分析学科漏洞,及时寻求老师帮助,查漏补缺。
    小班课
    (推荐指数:★★★☆☆)
    一对一
    (★★★★☆)
    培优拔高课
    查漏补缺课
    考前冲刺课
    同步提升课

6

重要冲刺阶段

期中考试过后要继续稳扎稳打地学习知识,上课认真听讲,认真完成作业,不留学习死角。6月中旬要提前备战期末考试,至少提前两周开始制订期末考试的复习计划。

  • 学习指导
    推荐辅导方式
    智学课程
  • 1、结合期中考试结果,找出自身薄弱科目,针对失分点进行专项辅导;
    2、制定期末考试目标,梳理全年学科内容,及时查漏补缺;
    3、针对优势科目要进行培优辅导,提高总成绩。
    一对一
    (★★★★★)
    培优拔高课
    查漏补缺课
    考前冲刺课
    同步提升课

7

期末考试

期末考试是对于初一一年学习成果的整体检阅,一定要认真对待,及时发现问题及时求助解决,以免陷入初二两极分化的泥沼。

  • 学习指导
    推荐辅导方式
    智学课程
  • 1、针对初一全年的学科知识进行查漏补缺、拔高培优;
    2、提前接触初二新科目的学习,避免新学期跟不上;
    3、利用暑假开拓眼界,调整身心状态,为接下来的学习打好基础。
    一对一
    (★★★★★)
    培优拔高课
    查漏补缺课
    考前冲刺课
    同步提升课

8

暑期

暑假可以让学生放松心情,开拓眼界,提高语言能力,加强沟通与协作能力,更好地迎接丰富的初中生活。

  • 学习指导
    推荐辅导方式
    智学课程
  • 8月就要收心了,部分学校会进行分班考试,所以要提前着手学习,着重关注英语、数学学科,提升应对更高难度题目的能力。
    小班课
    (★★★★★)
    培优拔高课
    查漏补缺课
    同步提升课

9

开学季

正式开学之后,同学们就成为初中生了。新学期伊始要尽快适应新的学习节奏,适应老师的教学方式等等,本阶段的主要任务就是熟悉学习环境、适应初中生活,并且克服对新科目学习的障碍。

  • 学习指导
    推荐辅导方式
    智学课程
  • 调整学习状态、完成学习方法的转变、适应初中教师的学习方法、完成对新科目的学习。
    小班课
    (推荐指数:★★★★☆)
    一对一
    (★☆☆☆☆)
    新学期衔接课
    培优拔高课
    查漏补缺课
    考前冲刺课
    同步提升课

10

月考

新学期伊始要尽快适应新的学习节奏,适应老师的教学方式等等,本阶段的主要任务就是熟悉学习环境、适应初中生活,并且克服对新科目学习的障碍,提前为月考做准备。

  • 学习指导
    推荐辅导方式
    智学课程
  • 调整学习状态、完成学习方法的转变、适应初中教师的学习方法、完成对新科目的学习。
    小班课
    (推荐指数:★★★★☆)
    一对一
    (★☆☆☆☆)
    新学期衔接课
    培优拔高课
    查漏补缺课
    考前冲刺课
    同步提升课

11

期中考试

经过为期两个月的学习,同学们即将迎来初中生活的第一次期中考试。期中考试是本学年第一次正式考试,会进行班级、年级的排名,会对同学们近两个月的学习成果进行客观的检验。

  • 学习指导
    推荐辅导方式
    智学课程
  • 1、判断学生是否适应了老师的讲课方式和初中学习生活的节奏;
    2、分析成绩上下浮动的原因是粗心大意还是基础薄弱;
    3、提高孩子知识关联、综合运用的能力。
    小班课
    (推荐指数:★★★☆☆)
    一对一
    (★★★★☆)
    培优拔高课
    查漏补缺课
    考前冲刺课
    同步提升课

12

期中考试、查漏补缺阶段

经过为期两个月的学习,同学们即将迎来初中生活的第一次期中考试。期中考试是本学年第一次正式考试,会进行班级、年级的排名,会对同学们近两个月的学习成果进行客观的检验。

  • 学习指导
    推荐辅导方式
    智学课程
  • 1、判断学生是否适应了老师的讲课方式和初中学习生活的节奏;
    2、分析成绩上下浮动的原因是粗心大意还是基础薄弱;
    3、提高孩子知识关联、综合运用的能力。
    小班课
    (推荐指数:★★★☆☆)
    一对一
    (★★★★☆)
    培优拔高课
    查漏补缺课
    考前冲刺课
    同步提升课
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